A large mass of anomalously cool water in the Equatorial Pacific (image of sea surface temperature anomalies on 20 August 1998 courtesy of Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center)
14 JUNE - 20 AUGUST 1998
As El Niño continues to fade, it is not clear whether
events such as southern U.S. droughts and heavy monsoons in Asia are ENSO-related.
Flooding in China has been identified as associated with ENSO. The
dengue outbreak continues over most of the western Pacific and Asia. Effects
reported here of the drought in the southern U.S., the warm winters in
the northeastern U.S., and the warm waters in Alaska and British Columbia
may reverberate through ecosystems and local economies for years.
Broken Records ()Guam, December 16, 1997. Maximum surface wind velocity: 236 MPH by Supertyphoon Paka at Andersen Air Force Base (previous record 231 MPH on Mount Washington).
BUT: This record contested!
January and February 1998: Warmest national average temperature, continental U.S. : 37.5oF (normal 32.1oF, previous record 37.0oF in 1990). Los Angeles Times, Tuesday, March 10, 1998.
January and February 1998: Highest rainfall, continental U.S. : 6.01 inches (normal 4.05 inches, previous record 5.7 inches in 1979). Los Angeles Times, Tuesday, March 10, 1998.
Alaska, February 27, 1998: Early first singing of Varied Thrush and first hooting of Blue Grouse.
March 29, 1998 Washington, D.C. (Dulles Airport), : Record High Temperature (86oF).
March 30, 1998: Record High Temperatures in Atlantic City, N.J., Philadephia, PA, New York City, N.Y., Wilmington, DE (86oF) and Baltimore-Washington International Airport (89oF).
World Meteorological Organization, March 31, 1998: The Northern Hemisphere had its warmest February since 1950
April 3, 1998: Record High Temperature (105oF) Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
April 9, 1998: Deadliest Tornado Season in 14 years, U.S.
May 9, 1998: Record High Temperature (33.9oC) Mexico City, Mexico
June 8, 1998: Record World High Temperature: 1.76 degrees above the average of 61.7 degrees (1961 to 1990)
June 8, 1998: Warmest Spring on record, Canada
June 13, 1998: Wettest day on record, Boston, Mass., and Providence, R.I
June 15, 1998: Earliest onset of monsoons in 97 years, India
June 17, 1998: Warmest summer in 60 years, New Zealand
July 2, 1998: Most officer fatalities by drowning, U.S.
July 5, 1998: Warmest first half of a year since records began, Detroit, MI
July 7, 1998: Warmest first half of a year since records began, global
July 8, 1998: Warmest
January through June period since climate records were first kept in
1895, 12 Northeast U.S. states. 45.3 degrees Fahrenheit, which is 4.1 degrees
warmer than the normal 41.2 degrees
The scientific community was not aware of the last big ENSO event in
1982 until it was well underway. This one was forecast in January 1997,
so we are watching it develop from a far earlier stage than has been previously
possible. Some of the reports may report events that will in retrospect
turn out to be coincidence, having nothing to do with ENSO at all. Others
may be previously unrecognized precursors. The reports are often second
hand or casual, edited out of other messages. Please check with the original
author before using the data.
David C. Duffy
Alaska Natural Heritage Program
University of Alaska
Or use the Response form
|Pacific Ocean / Hawaii||Washington||Nevada / Utah||Midwest / Great Lakes||Northeast U.S.||Europe|
|California / Arizona||Oregon||Colorado||Middle East|
|Russia / Mongolia / Tibet / China / Korea / Japan||Mexico||New Mexico||Texas||Southeast U.S.||Florida||North Atlantic Ocean|
|India, Indian Ocean, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, Micronesia, Indonesia, PNG||Central America||Colombia / Ecuador / Galapagos||Venezuela / Guyana||Caribbean|
|Peru||Bolivia||Brazil||Africa and Madagascar|
|Australia / New Zealand / Fiji / Tonga / New Caledonia / Samoa||Chile||Argentina, Uruguay, Malvinas||Antarctic|
on El nino, Biodiversity and Conservation
The NOAA Climate Diagnostics Center
NOAA advisories: CPC El Niño/Southern Oscillation Main Page
El Niño: Preparing for the Worst
1997 News Items
January 12, 1998: Was 1997 the warmest year in history?
January in Africa: "It's virus soup out there"
January 14, 1998: ENSO Insurance available
January 21, 1998: Cooling trend in the troposphere
January 30, 1998: ENSO predictions
February 1998: Marine die-offs in New Zealand
February 12, 1998: SECRETARY OF COMMERCE WILLIAM M. DALEY ANNOUNCES: EL NINO STILL GOING STRONG; IMPACTS FELT AROUND THE COUNTRY
February 10, 1998: WORLD: AGRICULTURE (COCOA)
February 12, 1998: US: CLIMATE (FORECAST)
February 12, 1998: World cost of the current ENSO event may reach $10 billion
February 18, 1998: WORLD IMPACT (FOOD PRODUCTION)
February 24, 1998: Oceanography of El nino
February 27, 1998: Did El Nino Cause The French Revolution, the Irish Potato Famine, and the Black Death?
February 27, 1998: Bumper crops of pollen and mold on the way
March 5, 1998: Lowered home energy needs in U.S.
March 11, 1998: What do Monica Lewinsky and El Nino have in common?
March 12, 1998: Predictions of epidemics
March 19, 1998: Weather forecast
March 23, 1998: Return on NOAA research
March 26, 1998: El Nino slows Earth's rotation
April 4, 1998: Economic Impact (USA)
April 8, 1998: Special NOAA Report on El Nino
April 9, 1998. NEOTROPICS: CLIMATE
May 1, 1998: Effects on duck hunting
May 9, 1998. GLOBAL WARMING AND ENSO
May 12, 1998: U.S. Weather Forecast
May 15, 1998: World Health Effects - Summary and Predictions
June 5, 1998: ENSO's trigger?
June 9, 1998: El Niño's decline
July 15-17, 1998. The National Center for Atmospheric Research will host the first summit on "La Niña"
SST Anomaly Coral Bleaching Hotspots
June 25, 1998: La Niña forecast from NOAA
July 3, 1998: 29 cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the U.S.