Sustainable Oceans and Coastal Zones 

1998 United Nations Year of the Oceans

Environmental Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture
(Dierber and Kiattisimkul 1996)
Mangrove and Wetland Destruction
        Reduced biodiversity
        Reduced fish catch
        Coastal erosion
        Loss of detrital foods
        Loss of forestry products
  Salt water intrusion
        Surface waters
        Ground waters
  Land subsidence
   Water quality degredation
        Oxygen depletion
  Sediment disposal
        Sediment accumulation
  Adandoned shrimp farms
   Traditional livelihoods displaced
        Rice farming
        Artisinal fisheries
        Charcoal production

Environmental Effects of Aquaculture in the United States The Environmental Defense Fund's 1997 Report on the Environmental Effects of Aquaculture in the United States (Goldburg and Triplett 1997)

Possible Exotic Species Impacts? On Oct. 22 1997. White spot syndrome was discovered at a Charleston, SC, USA shrimp farm. In early Oct. 1997, the non-native Pacific white shrimp were discovered in Matagorda Bay, Texas, having escaped from one of the shrimp farms there.Foreign Shrimp Regulation. It also appear exotic diseases and viruses are entering new places in imported dead and unprocessed shrimp. On Oct. 28, 1997, the SC Dept. of Natural Resources Office of Fisheries Management held a public hearing on proposed regulations to control the importation and possession of foreign
shrimp.  The regulations respond to concerns over repeated outbreaks of shrimp virus, and would create a shrimp import permit program and a 25-day quarantine for imported shrimp.

Major International Research Institutions & Information Sources

Arizona Aquaculture Links
National Ag Library Aquaculture Links
National Ag. Library's Aquaculture Information Center
Electronic Zoo / NetVet - Fish Page
Int. Ctr. for Aquaculture, Auburn University
Oceanic Institute
Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP
Rosenbery (1997)
Shrimp News International
University of Idaho Aquaculture Research Institute

Selected Bibliography of Environmental & Social Impacts

Dierberg, F. and W. Kiattisimkul. 1996. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Environmental Management 20: 649-666.

Flaherty, M. and C. Karnjanakesorn. 1995. Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand. Environmental Management 19(1): 27-37.

Hopkins, J. et al. 1995. Environmental impacts of shrimp farming with special reference to the situation in the continental United States. Estuaries 18: 25-42.

Larsson, J. et al. 1994. Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Columbia. Environmental Management 18: 663-676.

Muluk, C. and C. Bailey. 1996. Social and environmental impacts of coastal aquaculture in Indonesia, p. 193-209. In: C. Bailey, S. Jentof and P. Sinclair (eds.) Aquacultural Development. Social Dimensions of an Emerging Industry. Westview Press.

Phillips, M, M. Beveridge, and R. Clarke. 1991. Impact of aquaculture on water resources, p. 568-591. In: D. Brune and J. Tomasso (eds.) Advances in Aquaculture, Volume 3. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA

Phillips, M., C. Kwei Lin, and M. Beveridge. 1993. Shrimp culture and the environment: lessons for the world's most rapidly expanding warmwater aquaculture sector, p. 171-197. In: R. Pullin et al. (eds.) Environment and aquaculture in Developing countries. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 31, 359 pages.

Primavera, J. 1989. The social, ecological and economic implications of intensive prawn farming. Asian Aquaculture 11(1): 1-6.

Primavera, J. 1991. Intensive prawn farming in the Philippines: ecological, social, and economics implications. Ambio 20: 28-33.

Primavera, J. 1993. A critical review of shrimp pond culture in the Philippines. Reviews in Fisheries Science 1(2): 151-201.

Torres, M. 1996. Shrimp mariculture development in two rural Mexican communities, p. 171-191. In: C. Bailey, S. Jentof and P. Sinclair (eds.) Aquacultural Development. Social Dimensions of an Emerging Industry. Westview Press.